Video: Bioenergy Europe about agricultural biomass: Miscanthus

Bioenergy Europe's third video of a series of four dedicated to bioenergy feedstock coming from agriculture, both perennial energy crops and agricultural residues. In this video Bioenergy Europe focuses on the potential of miscanthus as a perennial dedicated energy crop. Thanks to this crop's unique characteristics, miscanthus can be grown on degraded land and can mitigate soil erosion. These environmental benefits, and the little maintenance required (no fertilizers needed and harvest once a year) makes of miscanthus a fascinating crop deserving more attention and investment. About agrobiomass: with around 20% of the bioenergy feedstock coming from agriculture, both dedicated energy crops and...

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Video: Bioenergy Europe about agricultural biomass: Short Rotation Coppice Willow

Bioenergy Europe's third video of a series of four dedicated to bioenergy feedstock coming from agriculture, both perennial energy crops and agricultural residues. In this video we focus on Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow highlighting its potential in terms of utilization thanks to its energy characteristics and its specification that allow this plantation to positively contribute to environment and job creation.  About agrobiomass: with around 20% of the bioenergy feedstock coming from agriculture, both dedicated energy crops and agricultural residues can be utilised to produce heat, electricity and biofuels. Agricultural biomass represents an important and sustainable energy source although its potential remains...

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Video: Extractions of forest residues in Sweden

We share the experience of Sweden, where branches and tree tops are converted into energy. Forests are thinned, not destroyed. The ashes left after burning are returned to the felling site to return all nutrients to the soil. Forest dwellers do not lose their homes.

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Take part in the online survey about the renewable gases market in Ukraine of the REGATRACE project

You are kindly invited to participate to the online survey of the REGATRACE project, where Bioenergy Association of Ukraine is a partner. The survey will take approximately 10 minutes. What is the REGATRACE project? REGATRACE is an Innovation Action co-funded by the European Commission under the Horizon2020 Research and Innovation Programme. REGATRACE aims creating an efficient trade system based on issuing and trading biomethane/renewable gases Guarantees of Origin (GoO). This objective will be achieved through the following founding pillars: European biomethane/renewable gases GoO system Set-up of national GoO issuing bodies - Integration of GoO from different renewable gas technologies with electric and...

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Bioenergy Day: event summary, November 6, 2019

XII International trade fair “Energy efficiency. Renewable energy” was held on November 6 at the International Exhibition Centre in Kyiv. The Bioenergy Association also participated in the exhibition as an organizer of the All-Ukrainian Forum “Bioenergy Day”. Organizers of the event: Bioenergy Association of Ukraine, Global 100RE Ukraine. During the meeting participants were discussing such important topics as experience of bioenergy development in Ukraine and legislation and bioenergy technologies. This event became a communication platform for the industry's most qualified experts. Very important that participation was free for all visitors of Exhibition. “We fully understand the importance of creating such open and accessible expert’s...

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Articles of members

Corn residues storage costs

The corn stover should be stored under the conditions of keeping its normal amount of moisture against rain and soaking from the ground, avoiding decay and ensuring protection against fire. The selection of a storage type will depend on location and local conditions. The corn stover can be stored in open storage, tarped storage, permanent structure storage or anaerobic storage[1]. Several factors should be considered when selecting appropriate storage systems: feedstock stability during storage, cost of storage infrastructure, accessibility of feedstock during the entire storage duration, integration of storage platform with processing plant. The storage of biomass in permanent structures offers...

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Cost of equipment and operations related to harvesting of corn residues

The economic feasibility of corn residues harvesting depends on capital (key element) and operating costs. Capital expenditure is the cost of purchasing equipment. Operating costs are the costs of fuel, amortization, maintenance and repair, materials and labor.  Operating costs considerably depends on machinery productivity and the distance of transportation of bales from the field to the central storage facility. According to the corn stover harvesting cost estimation results, the net cost of collected biomass on the storage facility can be from 22.3 EUR/t d.m. Following storage and densification in briquettes or pellets will increase the added value of the corn stovers. Prepared by:...

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Corn harvesting technologies: in rolls and crushed form

In addition to the technologies for harvesting corn residues in bales described in the previous article, this biomass can be also: pressed into rolls using a roll baler instead of a baler of rectangular bales; collected in a crushed form as a mixture of different fractions of plant residues; collected in a crushed form in a separate fraction of plant residues, such as rods. Prepared by: Semen Drahniev – Member of the Expert Council of the Bioenergy Association of Ukraine for the platform of sustainable agribusiness SAF Ukraine. Technologies for harvesting corn and corn residues (in bales). Semen Drahniev. The platform of sustainable agribusiness SAF Ukraine. October 15th, 2019. The Bioenergy...

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Technologies for harvesting corn and corn residues (in bales)

There are several technological schemes for harvesting grain corn. Currently, the main method for harvesting commercial corn is combine threshing of ears in the field, shredding and spreading of the cut biomass with the use of combine harvesters equipped with corn reapers. This method of harvesting grain corn is the most economically feasible. In comparison with harvesting ears, the method provides 1.8-2 times decrease in labor costs and 20-25% reduction in fuel consumption[2]. Only a few agricultural enterprises (seed factories) collect corn as non-threshed ears with the following stationary threshing, which makes it possible to collect cobs. The seed factories...

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Experts from the Bioenergy Association of Ukraine, as a part of a Ukrainian delegation, visited Augsburg (Germany) and got acquainted with the waste management system.

The trip "Modern technologies and conceptual solutions for the waste processing industry" was held on May 20-24 in the cities of Bavaria within the framework of the "Bayern-fit for partnership" program of the Bavarian Government. Organizers: em&s and Solid waste consult Ukraine-Bavaria. Funding: Bayern International.

Waste in the region of Augsburg is separated into several containers. For recycling comes mostly brown (organic waste) and gray (unsorted residues) containers. The content of the gray container – burned, brown content – is fused to produce biogas. Paper, glass, plastic, packaging are utilized with the help of private companies.

Recycling in Augsburg is a comprehensive solution for one million inhabitants

The processing of organic and unsorted waste is organized by the non-profit municipal company AVA, that is established in 1991 by several municipalities, the main founder is Augsburg (280 thousand inhabitants). The services of the company are used by about one million inhabitants on the territory of 4880 km2.

Fig. 1 Entrance of cars with waste on the territory of the complex Fig. 2 Loading waste (unsorted residues) for incineration

Incineration of waste

The company recycles 350,000 tonnes/year of waste, of which 250,000 tonnes/year is combusted with heat and power generation (Fig. 3,4). Heat is supplied to the district heating network, used at the biogas plant of the company, a certain part is supplied to remote consumers by auto transport.

The burning temperature of the municipal solid waste (MSW) is at least 850 оС. After combustion, five-stage flue gas cleaning is used: electrofilters, water scrubbers, denitrification, filter with activated carbon. As a result, there have been no cases of exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations in flue gases during all exploitation periods.

After incineration 61,000 tons/year of slag is used to fill old salt mines and in road construction.

Also, 7,000 tons/year of metals are pre-selected from slag and bring an additional income of 1 million euros per year.

The company has two furnaces for burning medical waste (3500 tons/year). Medical waste is collected in special sealed containers and burned with them.

Fig. 3 The crane operator loads the waste (unsorted residue) for incineration Fig. 4 Remote control of waste incineration

Biogas production by organic waste fermentation

From 105,000 tons/year organic (food and garden) wastes biogas is generated and then, after purification and membrane enrichment, – biomethane. Biomethane is fed to gas filling stations through gas distribution networks and used as motor fuel. The resulting amount of gas is enough for 3800 cars to run 15,000 km for 1 year.

Fermentation of organic waste is organized in thermophilic mode. For this purpose, 3 reciprocating reactors, with a slow mixing, working in parallel are used (Fig. 5.6). Reactor's volume is 1600 m3 each. To heat the reactors, the heat generated by the combustion of waste is used. Reactors are connected to a universal common gas storage holder. The waste is in the reactor for 18-20 days.

Fig. 5 The feeding system of biogas reactor Fig. 6 General view of the biogas installation

The regenerated mass is divided into liquid and solid fractions. The liquid is used as a fertilizer for irrigating agricultural fields (28,000 tons/year). Solid is subjected to additional aerobic treatment and after 20 days of stabilization and final sifting is converted into commodity compost (16,000 tons/year) (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7 Commodity compost

So, conditionally zero waste treatment is organized in Augsburg. Separately collected organic waste is fermented to produce biogas, and the remainder is used as a fertilizer or a commodity compost (regulatory contamination of raw materials for compost 2-3%). Unsorted residual waste is burned, and the resulting after-burning slag is used for road construction or in salt mines, thus reducing the need for disposal in the landfill.
More about the problem of recycling the municipal solid waste can be found in the UABio position paper (2019) here.
Read also: UABio at the largest municipal solid waste landfill in Ukraine.
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