The paper covers state of the art and prospects for the development of district heating in Europe, including the use of renewable energy sources. Basic models of district heating system designs are analyzed. It is shown that effiency of district heating operation depends on the extent of unbundling of heat generation and transmission, opportunities for third-party access to heat networks, existing types of ownership.

Analysis of operation models in the district heating sector of EU countries. Part 1. Geletukha G.G., Zheliezna T.A., Bashtovyi A.I. Journal “Promyslova teplotekhnika” (Industrial heat engineering), 2016, v.38, N4 (p. 63-70) (in Ukrainian)