Energy from municipal solid waste
Options for energy use of solid waste
1. Collection biogas at landfills and generation electricity and/or heat;
2. Mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) with possible biogas and/or solid fuel (RDF/SRF) generation with subsequent utilization at cement plants or in specialized CHP/boiler houses;
3. Heat treatment/utilization of mixed (residues after sorting) solid waste with electricity and/or heat generation.
At present, relatively simple projects can be developed in Ukraine, where the choice of technology is mainly determined by the principle of “reasonable sufficiency”.
It is necessary to approve such tariffs for processing and disposal of household waste, which would make waste to energy projects economically viable for implementation and investmentUABIO Position
Projects for biogas collection and utilization at landfills are already had been implemented in Ukraine. Also, the use of sorting lines is expanding and the first MBT projects with a capacity of 80 ktons/year and more are planned.
There are no economic conditions in Ukraine for the implementation of thermal projects using equipment from European suppliers. Such projects can be implemented only in the case of a significant reduction in capital costs without losing the quality of flue gas cleaning.
The perspectives of solid waste sector development is mainly determined by the cost level for services provided by utilities and private companies.
In 2018, the average tariff for solid waste management was 102 UAH/m3, and the average landfill disposal tariff was 30.5 UAH/m3 (approximately 3 UAH/month per person).
This tariff mainly covers waste removal costs (collection and transportation) to landfills, but the landfill disposal itself is paid on a residual basis. Moreover, construction cost of future solid waste management facilities (both regional landfills and waste processing complexes) significantly exceeds the available amount of paid services in the field of solid waste management. Therefore, in Ukraine there is a need to approve tariffs for processing and disposal, which would ensure operation at the required technical and environmental level and would provide a certain component for the implementation of investment projects.